Were These Two Letters Authored by George Washington?

If you’ve been following my blog, you may remember that I was once tasked with attempting to identify the author of an anonymous letter that sparked a major scandal involving two high-profile American political figures during the 19th century. These historical investigations are always interesting, and they occasionally involve some very well-known individuals.

Several years ago, for example, I was approached by a client who asked me to confirm the authorship of two letters that had purportedly been signed by George Washington.

This investigation ultimately sought to answer two key questions: Were the signatures authentic, and was Washington the author of the letters as well? I began by studying the signatures and comparing them to known examples of George Washington’s signature.

George Washington Signatures








Based on the overwhelming consistencies between the signatures in question and known George Washington signatures, I concluded that there is a strong probability that the letters were, in fact, signed by our nation’s first president. Whether or not the letters were actually authored by him, however, is a matter of debate.

George Washington Text






Washington was not known for being a very skilled penman, and was even so embarrassed by his handwriting that he would sometimes spend hours practicing his penmanship and re-writing old documents that he was dissatisfied with. Based on this historical detail and my analysis of the handwriting in the two letters, George Washington could not be the author of the full text of these documents.

Instead, it’s possible that the letters were written by an aide and then signed by Washington after the fact. I then attempted to identify the author of the document text by comparing the text to other historic documents handwritten by Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton and a few known penmen employed by Hamilton. Comparisons revealed that all but one of Hamilton’s penmen could be eliminated, but he could not be identified. Unfortunately, to this date the true penmen remains a mystery.

Unraveling the History of Two Mysterious Metal Trunks

Metal Trunks

Although forensic document examiners often work with pen and paper, we’re sometimes recruited to analyze markings and impressions on other objects as well. Such is the case with two metal trunks that a client brought to me several years ago. The client’s father received the trunks soon after the Korean War, with no explanation as to their purpose or history. Decades later, his son hoped my expertise in forensic analysis might help him get to the bottom of this mystery.

At first glance it was clear that these trunks were designed and built with a specific purpose in mind, but the exact nature of that purpose was unclear. There was even evidence that the trunks could be pressurized.

I began my investigation by studying any legible markings I could find on the outside surfaces of the trunks. The most significant markings were two stamp impressions that read “BZ-51” and “Inspected and Accepted.”

Stamp ImpressionsI also used my infamous “dog food can apparatus” to enhance and study additional ineligible markings on the trunks. This apparatus—which serves as a DIY alternative to video spectral comparator (VSC) devices—uses a modified dog food can and blue/green corning filter affixed to a Kodak Carousel slide projector to detect infrared luminescence, thereby making the faded lettering legible again. 

After studying all the impressions on the trunks, I made a surprising discovery.

The “BZ-51” and “Inspected and Accepted” stamps are the same impressions that were placed on the Manhattan Project’s detonators and weapons fusing assembly cartridges for “Little Boy,” the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima at the end of World War II.

Additional research revealed that the trunks were built and loaded at Los Alamos before being sent to Hunters Point Naval Base where they were picked up by the Heavy Cruiser Indianapolis. They were then placed in a detonators locker and transported to the B-29 Air Force Base at Tinian Island.

Even after all my years in forensic analysis, I never could have imagined that these seemingly ordinary trunks could have such a fascinating history. To learn more any of the services we offer at Drexler Document Laboratory, feel free to give us a call or contact us online today!

Identifying the Source of a Series of Threatening Messages

As a forensic document examiner, I’m sometimes tasked with verifying the identity of a person who would rather remain anonymous. In 2016, for example, the owner of a small bar in South Central Alabama contacted me after receiving a series of threatening phone calls, text messages and emails from a disgruntled patron.

The proprietor of the establish suspected that the culprit might be a pair of brothers who had recently been banned from the property for harassing other patrons and exhibiting violent drunken behavior. My client began receiving the threatening messages soon after these brothers were permanently ejected from the bar.

After a few months, when their threatening messages failed to produce the desired result, the suspected culprits decided to up the ante. At this point, my client received a very sinister-looking jawbone in the mail, which was inscribed with cryptic messages and bound with torn scraps of childrens’ pajamas. This jawbone gave me the handwriting sample I needed to determine whether or not the brothers were behind this disturbing pattern of harassment.

By comparing the inscriptions on the bone to limited handwriting standards from the two brothers, I was able to eliminate the younger brother as the culprit. There are indications, however, that the older brother was a likely source of the writing on the jawbone. Based on this evidence, it’s likely that my client’s suspicions were quite correct.  

Interested in learning more about how forensic handwriting analysis can help you get to the bottom of a difficult case? Give Drexler Document Lab a call or contact us online today to get started.

Who Authored the Letter That Sparked a 19th-Century American Scandal?

On February 27, 1859 Philip Barton Key sat on a bench outside the home of his mistress Teresa Sickles and signaled his arrival. Key was the son of famed author Francis Scott Key, and a lawyer who served as U.S Attorney for the District of Columbia. He also had a reputation for rakish behavior and was widely regarded as the handsomest man in Washington. Teresa Sickles, meanwhile, was the wife of congressman Daniel Sickles of New York.

Key’s affair with Sickles began in the spring of 1858, but it would come to an abrupt halt on that fateful day in February 1859.

Earlier that Week, Daniel Sickles received an anonymous letter describing the details of Key’s affair with his wife. On the afternoon of the 27th, Sickles was lying in wait to catch Key in the act. Upon seeing Key on the bench outside his home, Sickles dashed outside and cried, “Key, you scoundrel, you have dishonored my home. You must die!” Sickles then fired multiple pistol shots a Key, inflicting grievous wounds that left him dead just a few hours later.

Following a lengthy and highly-controversial trial, Sickles was acquitted of the murder of Philip Barton Key based on grounds of temporary insanity. This was the first time the temporary insanity defense was employed successfully in the United States. It’s also worth noting that Sickles’ defense attorney was Edwin M. Stanton, who would go on to serve as Secretary of War for President Abraham Lincoln.

Although the murder case was closed long ago, the author of the letter that alerted Sickles to the affair remains a mystery. In an attempt to establish authorship of the letter, I compared it to writing samples of the four primary suspects: Samuel Butterworth, Stephen D. Beekman, Rose O’Neal and Henry Wikoff.       

It was a challenging examination process, due in large part to the fact that I was limited to digitally-scanned documents which lack the detail of original documents. Despite these challenges, I was able to analyze common writing habits like letterforms, spacings, slant and connecting strokes to determine that none of the four suspected authors were the source of the letter. Thus, the letter must have been written by a fifth suspect who has yet to be identified. For now, the source of this letter remains one of the most enduring mysteries in American history.

Autographed Sports Memorabilia Isn’t Always What it Seems

Baseball in GloveFor a diehard sports fan, there’s no better gift than a piece of autographed memorabilia from their favorite athlete. Thanks to online marketplaces like eBay, it’s easier than ever to find autographed uniforms, balls and other equipment from some of the world’s most iconic sports figures. Unfortunately, however, the sports memorabilia market also harbors enormous potential for fraud.

It’s very easy for scammers to find an image of an athlete’s signature online, copy it and apply it to a jersey or photograph. Sometimes, signed pieces of sports memorabilia come with “certificates of authenticity,” but even these can be forged with relative ease. If someone is willing to go to the trouble of forging an athlete’s signature, you can bet they won’t have any qualms about making a fake certificate as well.

Last year, one such fraudster was taken into custody twice after being accused of operating a $10 million scheme that involved selling fake sports memorabilia to investors. He was first arrested in March, and then again in November when authorities found he was continuing to sell fake sports memorabilia even after taking a plea deal. Now, prosecutors are seeking a prison term of at least 11 years for his alleged crimes.

So how can you avoid falling victim to one of these scams?

As a general rule of thumb, if a deal seems too good to be true, it probably is. Be sure to take those certificates of authenticity with a grain of salt as well. Whenever possible, buy sports memorabilia from reputable dealers rather than individual vendors you find on the Internet. Even if a seller has positive reviews on eBay, it doesn’t necessarily mean their goods are authentic.

If you suspect you may have already purchased a fraudulent piece of sports memorabilia, you maybe be able to take legal action against the seller. First, however, you must obtain proof that the item was forged, and that the seller knew it was forged when they sold it to you. At Drexler Document Laboratory, our forgery experts can analyze autographed sports memorabilia to verify its authenticity once and for all. Give us a call or contact us online today to learn more.

How Handwriting Can Make or Break a Case

How Handwriting Can Make or Break a CaseHandwriting is something that many people take for granted, but there are many cases where it is important to discovering the truth about a hand-written document. In some cases, handwriting can even have an impact on a case, even swaying a court’s decision. Let’s look at a prime example of how handwriting can make or break a case.

Written documentation is important in many civil and criminal cases. While many documents are now generated electronically, many are also still created the “old fashioned” way with a pen and paper. In one recent criminal case from the U.K., handwriting turned out to be critical to the defense.

A man in Bedfordshire, England was charged in 2001 with trespassing in search of game after he and another man were spotted on private land. According to reporting from the BBC, the police officer prepared a written report in the case that accused the man of illegally coursing for hare. At the trial, the accused man’s attorney argued to the court that the police officer’s handwriting on the report was so poor that he was unable to read it to prepare a defense. The court agreed with the defense attorney, and ruled that the illegible handwriting on the report resulted in a breach of the defendant’s human rights. The police department later said that they had never before encountered a case like this.

While this criminal case may be a bit unusual, it does highlight the importance of handwriting and its role in many court cases. While sheer illegibility is certainly a rare exception, handwriting comes into focus more commonly in cases of forgery or questioned documents. Hand-written notes and copy plays a role in many legal cases, and in many instances, it is essential that documents are analyzed and examined by a properly trained document examiner.

At Drexler Document Laboratory, we provide a variety of expert services, including document forgery detection, handwriting comparison, and analysis and examination of questioned documents. We provide assistance in civil, criminal and private inquiries. Contact us today by calling 844-373-9522 to discuss your case.

Documented Evidence: The Role of Document Examination in the Lindbergh Baby Case

Back in September 1934, a man named Richard Hauptmann was arrested and charged with first-degree murder for killing Charles Lindbergh Jr., the oldest son of famous aviator Charles Lindbergh and his wife, Anne. The following January, Hauptmann was put on trial for the murder of the young boy, and after a monthlong trial, he was found guilty and sentenced to the death penalty. Hauptmann’s trial was referred to as the “Trial of the Century” at the time, and while there were plenty of scandalous details surrounding it, document examination is what ultimately played a key role in Hauptmann receiving a guilty verdict at the end of the court proceedings.

Handwriting in Court CasesShortly after the Lindbergh’s baby disappeared in March 1932, the Lindbergh family received a series of ransom notes demanding money in exchange for the return of the child. There were a dozen or more ransom notes in total and several other written correspondences between the suspected kidnapper and the Lindberghs. Many of these documents can be seen on investigator Jim Fisher’s website.

During Hauptmann’s trial, document examiner Albert S. Osborn was able to determine that all of the ransom notes had been written by the same person. Osborn was able to obtain a few documents written by Hauptmann independently, but he also requested dictated writing samples that were carefully constructed to offer insight on certain character formations that could be used to clearly tie the ransom notes to Hauptmann. In addition, some of the misspellings and grammatical errors that were present in the letters ware repeated in Hauptmann’s own personal correspondence, while distinctive inversions of certain letters that marked his handwriting style.

Hauptmann’s handwriting was also a hot topic during the investigation into the Lindbergh baby’s death. Police asked him to rewrite the ransom notes that had been sent and also had him write out other statements in an effort to prove that he had indeed written the original notes. Unfortunately, police were unable to conclude much from the handwriting analysis that was done because they incorrectly asked him to copy the notes and also spelled certain words out correctly for him. However, Osborn’s work in tying Hauptmann’s writing to the random notes through document examination was still viewed as one of the central pieces of evidence against him and is often touted as some of the most compelling evidence that resulted in his conviction.

Document examination can play a major part in all kinds of different legal cases. If your case involves a contested signature or other handwritten evidence, you should call the experts at Drexler Document Laboratory. We can verify, authenticate, or investigate documents with questionably authentic writing, and our determinations are legally admissible in both civil and criminal court actions. As the Lindbergh baby trial proved, testimony offered by document examiners in court can be used to strengthen a case, and it could even be a deciding factor for your situation.

Learn more about handwriting analysis and examination services available for your case from Drexler Document Laboratory by calling us at 844-373-9522 today.

Honest, Fair Elections: How FDE Helped the Government Successfully Prosecute Voter Fraud

Voter fraud is a recurring news topic, particularly during election seasons. While voter fraud allegations and concerns may often seem to be a partisan issue, the reality is that it amounts to a crime against all citizens. Honest, fair elections are an essential component of our democracy and a hallmark of the voting process. Forensic document is well-known for aiding in civil and criminal cases, but in one case, it was the vital evidence needed to reveal disenfranchisement and voter fraud.

Election FraudThe year was 1994, and as National Review reports, the citizens of rural Greene County, Alabama were preparing to vote in an election. As it turned out, several county and Eutaw city political races were close contests. In more than one race, an incumbent was in danger of being voted out of office.

The tax assessor was the first to publicly raise concerns about the abnormal number of absentee ballots in the 1994 election. There were about 7,700 registered voters in Greene County at the time, and more than 4,800 voted in person on Election Day. The margin on several political races was razor thin based on in-person votes, but more than 1,400 absentee ballots had been cast in this election – absentee ballots that helped to shift the outcomes of several of the races.

The initial concerns about election fraud centered around these absentee ballots, many of which – more than 1,000 – had been delivered to the local post office by just five individuals on election night. In addition, the high number of absentee ballots totaled more than one-third of all votes cast in Greene County, a percentage that was significantly above historical trends in both the county and the state of Alabama.

The subsequent investigation revealed that a number of local elected officials, their spouses and other government employees had been involved in a conspiracy to cast fraudulent absentee ballots. Following the investigation, two of the accused were found guilty at trial and nine others entered guilty pleas.

Forensic document examination is a vital tool for discovering the truth in many different situations. In the Greene County election fraud case, forensic document examination helped prosecutors build solid criminal cases against those who would thwart democracy. Through the analysis of signatures of victim voters on corresponding absentee ballot applications and absentee ballots, the handwriting of witnesses on absentee ballots, and interviews of the victim voters, a pattern of blatant voter fraud was revealed. As a result, however, reforms were made, turnouts at elections improved and honest and fair elections were restored to the county.

Drexler Document Lab brings decades of experience to any forensic document examination case, including suspected ballot fraud. Contact us today at 844-373-9522 to learn how our services can help with your case.

Document Examiners vs. Graphologists

If you are interested in hiring a handwriting expert to help you out with a legal case or an investigation of some kind, you will likely find two types of people who will claim to be able to help you – forensic document examiners and graphologists. However, you should not confuse one for the other, as they each serve very specific purposes and have different areas of specialization. You could actually run into a lot of trouble if you seek the services provided by a forensic document examiner and select a graphologist instead.

Document Examination vs. GraphologyForensic document examiners are able to take a look at a document and provide you with a wide range of professional feedback. They can perform handwriting comparisons, document authentication and signature authentication using known and reliable techniques to prove or disprove authenticity, as the American Board of Forensic Document Examiners notes. In addition, FDEs may be able to determine the approximate age of a document, reveal whether or not alterations have been made to a document, and even decipher documents that have been damaged or charred.

By definition, graphologists are not qualified to provide these services. Rather, the field of graphology – sometimes called graphoanalysis – relies exclusively on using handwriting to attempt to interpret the personality and character of a person. They cannot authenticate documents or offer up any advice on the authenticity of a document that would hold up in a court of law. And, in fact, there have been some legal cases in which the use of a graphologist has been disallowed. This includes a case involving an insurance company in 2006 in which lawyers used graphologist Curtis Baggett instead of a document examiner to build their case, causing the judge to rule that Baggett wasn’t qualified to “testify in this case as an expert in the field of handwriting analysis and document examination.”

Why put yourself through the trouble of calling on a graphologist who cannot face the scrutiny of qualifying in a court of law when what you really need is a well-trained forensic document examiner to investigate and determine the true history of a disputed document? Drexler Document Lab can offer you the comprehensive document examination, verification and authentication services you are looking for and explain why you should work with us as opposed to a graphologist who cannot provide you with true and reliable opinion that will hold up in court. Call us at 844-373-9522 today to learn about how one of our highly skilled document examiners can help you.

The Salamander Letter: Forgery in the Mormon Church

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as the LDS Church or more commonly as the Mormon church, has been rocked by numerous scandals throughout the years. One of the church’s biggest scandals, though, took place back in 1984 and involved what was known as the Salamander Letter.

The Salamander LetterThis letter that appeared to include correspondence between early Latter-day Saints convert Martin Harris and W.W. Phelps, one of the first leaders of the Latter-day Saints movement, and it seemed to allude to the true origin of the “gold plates” that founder Joseph Smith used to put together the Book of Mormon, the sacred text used by the LDS church. Specifically, the letter suggested there was a magical component to Smith’s discovery of the plates, says Times and Seasons, which would have rocked the LDS community at the time.

In the letter, a salamander spirit was believed to have been guarding the plates and demanded that Smith bring his deceased brother to him to get the plates. This implied that folk magic was involved in the early development of the Book of Mormon – not simply just a practice that Smith abandoned earlier in his life. If true, this letter would have stirred an immense controversy in the beliefs of the Mormon church.

However, in actuality, the letter was a forgery. Mark Hofmann, a notable counterfeiter and forger – who is currently serving a life sentence for attempted murder, as KSL Newsradio in Utah notes – approached LDS leaders and told them he had “found” documents that would portray the church in a negative light. He then attempted to sell many of the documents to the church since he believed they would want to hide them and prevent LDS followers from accessing them. He was successful in selling many of them and, for a time, there were church leaders who believed the Salamander Letter to be authentic.

Hofmann was such a skilled forger that the letter looked and felt like it had been written in 1830. According to a report from D. van der Reyden posted by the Smithsonian, Hofmann used some interesting methods to achieve the forgeries. For instance, he used hydrogen peroxide – the same that may be in your medicine cabinet – to create an artificially aged look through oxidization. However, as the report says, his forgeries became suspect when high-power magnification showed the ink was cracking strangely on the documents and in a manner inconsistent with what would be expected from authentic aging.

But it turned out that the Salamander Letter was just the tip of a much larger web of deceit and deception. As the Deseret News discusses, documents are still being uncovered today that Hofmann had a hand in forging. He had forged perhaps thousands of documents, continuing to play collectors and document enthusiasts against one another for years until finally his past caught up to him, and after setting off pipe bombs that killed two and injured himself, an investigation by the Salt Lake City Police Department uncovered the truth.

Hofmann’s attempt at duping the LDS Church with the forged Salamander Letter is a good example of just how far forgers will go to try and trick people, and the great degree of success that he saw is a prime example of how easy it can be to pass off a document as legitimate – at least to the untrained eye. Fortunately, at Drexler Document Lab, we have decades of knowledge and experience and can examine any suspected forgery to try to validate it or prove its falsehood. Learn more by calling Drexler Document Lab at 844-373-9522 today.